This year, I’d like to write a text that is somewhat different from the ones I’ve written before. Why? Well, because this year is different from others in many ways. For reasons of brevity, however, I will only dwell on two.
a) This will be my last period as list moderator; I will not participate in the election for 2015-2017 (a call for nominations will soon be published); and
b) In my personal opinion, there has been significant IPv6 deployment this year in the LAC region.
Based on the above, particularly item number 2, and considering that 2014 is coming to an end, I think this is the best time to use the word â€śretrospective,â€ť defined by Wikipedia  as â€ś…..a look back at events that already have taken place.â€ť I will comment about what has happened in our region.
Neither a statesman nor a writer, I nevertheless present you with my humble analysis.
This particular case has been much debated on the mailing list, so much so that it involved one of the stormiest email exchanges in recent years.   
At this time, at least according to Google, IPv6 penetration in the Peru is 10%, which makes it the only country in our region with double-digit IPv6 penetration rates and has allowed the country to join the group of countries with penetration levels higher than 10% along with Germany (12.35), the United States (10.95), and Switzerland (10.28) (I hope I have not forgotten any other).
As additional information, in May 2014, LACNIC began monitoring IPv6 traffic within the countries of our service region. In the case of Peru, our first measurements resulted in a penetration rate of 4.6%, which would sometimes fall to 3.4%. After 18 June, we noticed a steady growth of IPv6 traffic, which reached more than 10%.
Ecuador is a country with a relatively low Internet penetration rate among its population (35% in 2012 according to ). Its infrastructure, however, has improved dramatically over the last 2.5 years – according to .Â For this reason, for the purpose of this analysis, I will assume that Ecuador has an Internet penetration rate of 40%.
According to our observations, Ecuador is the LAC country with the fastest-growing IPv6 adoption rate â€“ in less than 60 days the country went from less than 1% to more than 3.6%.
Given that 40% of approximately 16,000,000 inhabitants can connect to the Internet, this means that, between October and December, the number of subscribers grew from 64,000 subscribers to 229,000.
For this particular country I would have liked to obtain statistics regarding the number of connected devices and computers, but it was difficult for me to find up-to-date information (I was only able to find information up to 2011). Just the same, I would like to note the following:
According to , Brazil has 202 million inhabitants and 107Â 822Â 831 of them are Internet users (2014). This represents 53% of the population. Based on the fact that at this time the country’s IPv6 penetration rate is 0.17%, we can assume that there are 183,298 users.
I’m sure many will think that this number is low; however, between May and mid-August 2014, the number remained fixed at 0.03%, i.e. only 60Â 000 users. Then, in a span of just seven months, there was an increase to more than 280Â 000 subscribers, which represents an increase of over 400%.
Finally, it is clear that it is difficult for the percentage to grow in a country such as Brazil due to its large population. In any other country, 200Â 000 would make quite an impression on IPv6 meters.
Bolivia seems to be a VERY significant event that is going unnoticed. There have been no discussions on the mailing list and, personally, I have not heard much (if at all) on other media. Ultimately, however, they deserve a round of applause, our respect and congratulations.
At the moment, the country has ~ 0.70% of IPv6 traffic, having started to deploy IPv6 in mid-2014 with greater emphasis in late August.
So far, we are not seeing the country’s global number grow significantly, apparently because this deployment is being carried out by a small provider (a cooperative). Once again, I extend my congratulations.
5) LAC Average:
Measurements by LACNIC included calculating the overall average for the region, for which we obtained approximately 0.5%.
The point I consider worth highlighting is that, in mid-June, the LAC average was 0.12%, which means that IPv6 adoption increased four-fold within a period of six months.
What should we expect in 2015?
We certainly would like to see strong IPv6 deployment in the LAC region over the next year. In early 2014 my forecast was that at the end of the year traffic would be 0.4%. Luckily, my prediction came short (I’m really glad I was wrong!!).
I only say this to make it public, but right now my forecast is that in 2015 we will reach 2.5%. In all honesty, however, it is very hard to make a prediction on this topic â€“ perhaps even more difficult than forecasting the weather and predicting sports results at the same time. We know of many organizations that are implementing IPv6 in every country and every region (universities, governments, ISPs). I obviously hope that my prediction is well below the mark, but even 5 times the current figure is quite promising.
Once again: Any killer applications?
I would like to mention something quite striking that happened repeatedly this year and which I think is a huge motivator:
Many companies in LAC were interested in connecting to companies in Asia. In LAC, they had access to IPv4 resources but not so in Asia. In other words, they needed IPv6 to communicate. This led our region’s ISPs to quickly deploy IPv6 or risk losing customers. Along with this, let’s remember that each country is not alone. The Internet has no borders and each country needs to communicate with the outside world. Those that choose not to implement IPv6 are at risk of becoming isolated. Perhaps you still are still using IPv4, but the other end may not necessarily be doing so.
According to Jaris AizprĂşa, engineer at Huawei and an active participant in LACNIC’s IPv6 workshops, â€śthe region is not preparedâ€ť to use IPV6 because the vast majority of Latin American and Caribbean operators and organizations are â€śwaiting for their IPv4 resources to run outâ€ť in order to â€śbegin thinking aboutâ€ť the latest Internet protocol.
In AizprĂşa’s opinion, organizations should understand the need for IPv6 right now, â€śnot when their IPv4 reserves begin to run out.â€ť
AizprĂşa told LACNIC News that he believes the first step towards IPv6 should be training on the urgent need for this protocol.
The challenge is using IPv6 once IPv4 is exhausted. Is the region prepared for this? has enough been done to avoid holding back Internet development?
I think the region is not prepared, as we have waited until resources have run out in order to begin thinking about IPv6.
Are the region’s companies aware of the pressing need to use IPv6?
Most organizations aren’t ready and don’t see the need for IPv6 because they still have enough IPv4 resources. In fact, because they are still connected to the Internet, they are not worried about IPv6 at all.
What should be done to further promote the latest Internet protocol in Latin America?
People should become aware of the need for IPv6 right now, not when their IPv4 reserves begin to run out. Training is a very important issue, not so much training on technical aspects but specifically on the need for IPv6.
In your opinion, what might happen in the region if certain countries make more progress than others in relation to IPv6 deployment and utilization?
It will allow them to fully exploit the benefits of IPv6, such as end-to-end connectivity, the Internet of Things, etc.
What can you tell us about IPv6 deployment in Ecuador?
There is currently very little IPv6 deployment. Only one ISP is already offering IPv6 for residential users, a breakthrough considering that these users are the ones demanding the most IPvX resources and Internet traffic. Other providers are still not offering IPv6 to their residential users and companies havenâ€™t enabled IPv6 on their services, specifically government agencies, which should be prioritized due to the high local traffic that exists today.
Without IPv6, â€ścountries will be unable to communicate with each otherâ€ť
Despite the efforts of LACNIC and the regional community aimed at accelerating IPv6 expansion and use, the progress made in Latin America and the Caribbean towards the adoption of the latest Internet protocol has been uneven. On the one hand, some countries have made great progress and already up to 9% of their traffic is using this technology. On the other hand, certain areas havenâ€™t even deployed IPv6 yet.
Alejandro Acosta, R+D Engineer at LACNIC, says there is a serious risk that the regionâ€™s countries will notÂ be able to communicate among themselves if this new Internet Protocol, which offers great advantages over the previous version (IPv4), is not adopted.
We spoke to Acosta during the LACNIC event held in Chile.
In your opinion, are the regionâ€™s companies and organizations aware of the pressing need to use IPv6?
Thatâ€™s a complex question. Many organizations are indeed aware of the situation and have already done some work in this regard. Iâ€™m sure, however, that most Latin American and Caribbean organizations have not yet become aware of this. I think that the near future â€“particularly 2015â€“ will be important in terms of IPv6 dissemination and adoption among private organizations.
What do you think it would take to boost IPv6 adoption?
I think the answer is a combination of many things. Governments must adopt a relatively firm position and internally promote IPv6 adoption within each country. ISPs, Internet users, and universities can also help disseminate the protocol.
What might happen if some Latin American and Caribbean countries make greater progress than others towards IPv6 adoption?
This topic has been discussed quite a bit in Europe, a region with differing levels of development. The answer is simple: those countries that fall behind will unfortunately become isolated. The Internet knows no borders and all countries need to connect with the rest of the world. What will happen? Unfortunately, countries that have adopted IPv6 and want to connect with a country that hasnâ€™t been able to do so will be unable to communicate. This will affect organizations in both countries. This is something that has already happened at many ISPs. Customers of an ISP that wasnâ€™t offering IPv6 have had to move to other ISPs that were.
Which countries are the most advanced in our region?
Right now, Peruâ€™s IPv6 adoption rate is more than 9%. The countries with the least progress are part of Central America.
What benefits will end users derive from IPv6?
Although there are many benefits, I will mention just two of them. The first benefit is the possibility of connecting a large number of devices at home or corporate level directly to the Internet, which will allow developing the Internet of Things. The second is the fact that applications will not fail.
by Alejandro Acosta
An operator’s general schema can be compared to a small-scale IANA-RIR schema.
Generally speaking, a provider who obtains an IPv6 address block from its RIR must have an IPv6 addressing plan (just as for IPv4).
Thanks to the huge number of available IPv6 addresses, it has become common practice to assign certain specific block sizes for specific purposes. For example:
- a) Address blocks for WAN networks
- b) Address blocks for LAN networks
- c) Address blocks for loopback interfaces in various devices
- d) If necessary, address blocks for ULAs (Unique Local IPv6 Unicast Addresses, RFC 4193)
- e) Address blocks for the network’s core
- f) Address blocks for customers
For security reasons, blocks and addresses are not assigned consecutively â€“ keep in mind that IPv6 address space is huge and our goal is to make our implementation as secure and vulnerability-free as possible.
Best practices recommend the following:
- /64s should be assigned for loopbacks
- /64s for LANs
- /64s for WANs (otherwise, assign a /127 and reserve the /64)
- /48s for POPs
It is very important to change our way of thinking, as we are no longer dealing with IPv4 and the need to save address space is no longer a concern.
In practice, we will work with the bits between /32 and /48. It’s actually quite simple. Remember that IPv6 is divided into eight 16-bit fields. What we will now do is play around with some of these fields. In our example, we’ll do the following:
[___ NET ID __ ]Â [Subnet]Â [Division]Â Â [________Â Interface ID ____________]
[C1]Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â [C2]Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â [C3]Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â [C4]Â Â Â Â Â Â [C5]Â Â Â Â Â Â [C6]Â Â Â Â Â Â Â [C7]Â Â Â Â Â Â Â [C8]
In this case, we’ll use the third field of zeroes (subnet). Here we have 16 bits, enough for 65,536 subnets which we can create to satisfy various needs. A possible addressing plan could be as follows:
Addressing Plan (high level):
- Grab the whole 2001:db8:00000000::/48
- 2001:db8:0:0::1/64 Loopback #1
- 2001:db8:0:1::43/64 Loopback #2
- 2001:db8:0:2::00A7/64 Loopback #3
b) LAN Segments:
- Grab the whole 2001:db8:00E::/48
- 2001:db8:000E:0::/64 LAN SegmentÂ #1
- 2001:db8:000E:23::/64 LAN SegmentÂ #2
- 2001:db8:000E:286::/64 LAN SegmentÂ #3
- Grab the whole 2001:db8:005A::/48
- 2001:db8:005A:0::/64 WAN SegmentÂ #1
- 2001:db8:005A:42::/64 WAN SegmentÂ #1
- 2001:db8:005A:0C2::/64 WAN SegmentÂ #1
- 2001:db8:00D9::/48 POP #1
- 2001:db8:139::/48Â Â Â POP #1
- 2001:db8:02FD::/48Â POP #1
1) The assignment of IPv6 prefixes according to service type is worth a brief note. Example: Imagine a datacenter that offers its customers shared hosting services as well as dedicated servers (either physical or virtualized servers). In this case, the service provider can assign different /48s to both platforms. Advantages of this scenario include:
- Easier to manage quality of service within the provider’s network
- Flexible, per-service /48 BGP announcements
- More detailed management of VIP customers
- Easier troubleshooting
2) Finally, organizations present in multiple countries, provinces or states can implement simple, fun things that will bring long-term benefits. For example: If the company has presence in Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela, the corresponding country codes are 54, 57 and 58. Now check out the third field in the following IPv6 addressing plan:
- Argentina: Â Â Â Â Â Â Â 2001:db8:54:0:0:0:0:0/48
- Colombia: Â Â Â Â Â Â Â 2001:db8:57:0:0:0:0:0/48
- Venezuela:Â Â Â Â Â Â Â 2001:db8:58:0:0:0:0:0/48
In the case above we used the country codes, but we could also have used state or province codes. Moreover, the third field could be used for the country code and the fourth field for the state.
- Venezuela: 2001:db8:58:212:0:0:0:0/56Â (212 = Caracas)
We hope you find this information useful.
For more information, please visit: www.lacnic.net
Latin America and the Caribbean have entered the IPv4 exhaustion phase; the delay in deploying Internet Protocol version 6 in our region is cause for concern.
La Casa de Internet de LatinoamĂ©rica y el Caribe, 10 June.- Today, the Internet Address Registry for Latin America and the Caribbean (LACNIC), the organization responsible for assigning Internet resources in the region, announced the exhaustion of its IPv4 address pool and expressed its concern regarding the fact that operators and governments throughout the region are delaying the deployment of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6).
LACNIC reported that its pool of available IPv4 addresses reached the 4.194.302 mark, and that this has triggered stricter Internet resource assignment policies for the continent. In practice, this means that IPv4 addresses are now exhausted for Latin American and Caribbean operators.
“This is an historic event; the fact that it was anticipated and announced doesn’t make it any less significant,” said RaĂşl EcheberrĂa, LACNIC’s CEO. “From now on, LACNIC and its National Registries will only be able to assign very small numbers of IPv4 addresses, and these will not be enough to satisfy our region’s needs.” Since it began operating in 2002, the organization has assigned more than 182 million IPv4 addresses throughout Latin America and the Caribbean.
The Internet Address Registry for Latin America and the Caribbean (LACNIC) has begun, at the beginning of February, a series of visits and meetings with Latin- American officials and operators. The target of this tour is to report on the impending exhaustion of the regional IPv4 address stock and discuss the actions that should be taken to ensure normal Internet growth in that country.
IP addresses are a finite yet vital resource for the proper operation of the Internet, and this year will bring significant challenges resulting mainly from entering a new phase where IP version 4 (IPv4) address availability will be increasingly reduced. In order to make the transition as smooth as possible and ensure continued Internet growth through a safe and stable transition to Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) throughout the region, this new phase requires active participation of all stakeholders.
During the months of February and March, LACNIC experts visited government agencies and Internet Service Providers in Venezuela, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, and Argentina to raise awareness on the imminent exhaustion of IPv4 and the need to deploy IPv6.
More than six out of ten Internet organizations in the LACNIC service region have already received at least one IPv6 address block, the new technology that now is replacing the IPv4 protocol.
According to LACNIC’s technical records, Brazil leads the ranking of countries with the most IPv6 assignments, followed by Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, Chile, Costa Rica, and Ecuador.
Today, more than five out of ten Latin Americans have Internet access, and this number is expected to grow over the next 30 months. It is estimated that by 2015 there will be 100 million new Internet users in Latin America and the Caribbean, totaling 355 million users in the region.
Although it is a well-known fact that IPv4 address space is nearing exhaustion, this document reviews the current global and regional status of IPv4 address availability at the end of 2012. The information contained in this report can be found on the various websites cited throughout this document; however, this information has not been compiled in any single location or translated into the languages spoken in our region.
We assume that the reader is familiar with the current Internet address distribution and allocation system, as well as with the relationship between the IANA, regional registries, and ISPs/end users. For more information, please visit IANA’s website at: http://www.iana.org/numbers
Addresses Available in the IANA Pool
In February 2011, the central stock of IPv4 addresses administered by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) was finally exhausted. At that time, each RIR was assigned one of the five remaining blocks according to the global policy in force. More information on this milestone ceremony can be found at: http://lacnic.net/sp/anuncios/2011-agotamiento-ipv4.html
A complete distribution map of the original 256 /8 blocks can be found on IANA’s website at the following URL:http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv4-address-space/ipv4-address-space.xml
Since then, each RIR has only had access to its own IPv4 stock and, consequently, each RIR has had different projected IPv4 exhaustion dates for their region. The current situation for the five RIR service regions is analyzed below.
Addresses Available in RIR Pools
Each regional registry has a policy that is triggered when IPv4 resources reach a “practical” exhaustion limit. This limit is typically reached when a single /8 block remains, although LACNIC reserves two /12 blocks. After this “virtual exhaustion,” regional registries will no longer assign IPv4 addresses based on demonstrated need but will rather set a maximum block size to be assigned per organization â€“ typically a /22. Once this stage is reached, even though the RIR still has some addresses, the RIR stock is considered to be exhausted as it can no longer satisfy the actual needs of ISPs and other organizations.
APNIC was the first regional registry to run out of IPv4 addresses. On 15 April, 2011, APNIC started to use its last remaining /8. This event triggered a policy that restricts assignments to a single /22 per organization, either new or pre-existing. More information on APNIC’s website: http://www.apnic.net/publications/news/2011/final-8
It is interesting to analyze the following graph by Geoff Huston which clearly shows how scarcity began in April 2011. While in 2010 the average demand and number of assignments were in the order of 2 million addresses per week, the graph shows that the number of address assignments has been negligible after the “last /8″ policy was triggered. It also clearly shows increased demand during the first weeks of 2011 in anticipation of the moment when that policy would be triggered.
On 14 September, 2012, Europe’s regional registry also started to use its last remaining /8. The policy in force states that, from that moment on, the maximum assignment size is a /22. The original announcements from RIPE can be found at the following links:
ARIN, LACNIC and AfriNIC
These three registries have not yet reached their last /8 block and there are different estimates as to when each RIR will begin to use their reserve block. One of the better known projected RIR address pool exhaustion date estimates is the one prepared by Geoff Huston and available at the following link: IPv4 Address Report: http://www.potaroo.net/tools/ipv4/index.html
RIR Address Pool Exhaustion Dates:
Addresses in RIR Pool (/8s)
This information can be seen in graphic form at the following link: http://www.potaroo.net/tools/ipv4/plotend.png
In turn, LACNIC has its own IPv4 exhaustion date projections: http://www.lacnic.net/web/lacnic/reporte-direcciones-ipv4
As we can see, an important part of the global Internet is based in regions where the regional registries have already exhausted their IPv4 resources and where new IPv4 requests now face strict restrictions. Moreover, based on the projections cited above, we can safely assume that during the second half of the upcoming year most of the Internet will have insufficient IPv4 resources. For all of the above, we should begin thinking that the IPv4 protocol is exhausted and start thinking of an IPv6-based Internet. In our region, particularly, we should consider that we only have a year and a half to adopt the new version of the IP protocol and thus avoid the problems associated with IPv4 exhaustion.